Wednesday, November 16, 2011

photographer 6

R I C H A R D   A V E D O N 
Richard Avedon (May 15, 1923 – October 1, 2004) was an American photographer. An obituary published in The New York Times said that "his fashion and portrait photographs helped define America's image of style, beauty and culture for the last half-century."  Avedon was born in New York City to a Jewish Russian family. He attended DeWitt Clinton High School in the Bronx, where he worked on the school paper with James Baldwin.  After briefly attending Columbia University, he started as a photographer for the Merchant Marines in 1942, taking identification pictures of the crewmen with his Rolleiflex camera given to him by his father as a going-away present. In 1944, he began working as an advertising photographer for a department store, but was quickly discovered by Alexey Brodovitch, the art director for the fashion magazine Harper's Bazaar. Lillian Bassman also promoted Avedon's career at Harper's.



photographer 5

H I R O S H I   S U G I M O T O

Hiroshi Sugimoto, born on February 23, 1948, is a Japanese photographer currently dividing his time between Tokyo, Japan and New York City, USA. His catalog is made up of a number of series, each having a distinct theme and similar attributes. Hiroshi Sugimoto was born and raised in Tokyo, Japan. In 1970, Sugimoto studied politics and sociology at Rikkyō University in Tokyo. In 1974, he retrained as an artist and received his BFA in Fine Arts at the Art Center College of Art and Design, Los Angeles, California. Afterward, Sugimoto settled in New York City. Sugimoto has spoken of his work as an expression of ‘time exposed’, or photographs serving as a time capsule for a series of events in time. His work also focuses on transience of life, and the conflict between life and death.


photographer 4

E D W A R D   B U R T Y N S K Y 

Edward Burtynsky is a Canadian photographer and artist born February 22, 1955, who has achieved international recognition for his large-format photographs of industrial landscapes. His work is housed in more than fifteen major museums including the Guggenheim Museum, the National Gallery of Canada, and the Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris.


photographer 3

M A R I O   S O R R E N T I 

Mario Sorrenti (born 24 October 1971) is a photographer and director best known for his spreads of nude models in the pages of Vogue and Harper's Bazaar.  Sorrenti was born in Naples, Italy, but moved to New York City at the age of ten where he is still based. He is the son of New York based advertiser, Francesca Sorrenti. He has had exhibitions in London (Victoria and Albert Museum), Paris, Monaco and New York (Museum of Modern Art). He has undertaken campaigns and directed commercials for Calvin Klein, and has shot Kate Moss for the Calvin Klein Obsession ads. 


photographer 2

I R V I N G   P E N N

Irving Penn (June 16, 1917 – October 7, 2009) was an American photographer known for his portraiture and fashion photography. Penn worked for many years doing fashion photography for Vogue magazine, founding his own studio in 1953. He was among the first photographers to pose subjects against a simple grey or white backdrop and used this simplicity more effectively than other photographers. Expanding his austere studio surroundings, Penn constructed a set of upright angled backdrops, to form a stark, acute corner. Subjects photographed with this technique included Martha Graham, Marcel Duchamp, Pablo Picasso, Georgia O'Keeffe, W. H. Auden, and Igor Stravinsky.

photographer 1

B R U C E   W E B B E R

Bruce Weber (born March 29, 1946 in Greensburg, Pennsylvania) is an American fashion photographer and occasional filmmaker. He is most widely known for his ad campaigns for Calvin KleinRalph LaurenPirelliAbercrombie & FitchRevlon, and Gianni Versace, as well as his work for VogueGQVanity FairElleLifeInterview, and Rolling Stone magazines



Thursday, October 27, 2011

Paul Renner - Futura research

Futura is a geometric sans-serif typeface designed in 1927 by Paul Renner. It is based on geometric shapes that became representative visual elements of the Bauhaus design style of 1919–1933.  Commissioned by the Bauer Type Foundry in reaction to Ludwig and Mayer’s seminal Erbar of 1922, Futura was commercially released in 1927.
The Futura family was originally cast in Light, Medium, Bold, and Bold Oblique fonts in 1927. Light Oblique, Medium Oblique, Demibold, and Demibold Oblique fonts were later released in 1930. The book font was released in 1932 and the book oblique font was released in 1939. Edwin W. Shaar designed extra Bold font in 1952 as well as designing the extra Bold Italic font with Tommy Thompson in 1955. Matrices for machine composition were made by Intertype.
Original Futura design also included small capitals and the old-style figures, which were dropped from the original metal issue of the type. Neufville Digital first produced the digital versions of these glyphs under the Futura ND family.  Released in 1932, Futura Display uses more angular strokes, resulting in rectangular letterforms. Steile Futura was Paul Renner's attempt to create a typeface that would be closer to the nineteenth century sans serifs than to the geometric model. During the course of development, Renner developed several intermediate versions. Some of the early design could be found in the experimental font called Renner-Grotesk, which appeared as a trial type casting from the Stempel type foundry in 1936. Renner kursiv, a true italic companion to the regular version, was made after Stempel had been taken over by Bauer in 1938.  The work on the type family continued in the 1940s, but Renner's poor health had slowed down the development. Renner started to work again on this project in 1951 under the name of Steile Futura (steil in German means "upright" or "steep"). The font families released by Bauer consist of mager (light), halbfett (medium), fett (bold), kursiv halbfett (medium italic), and kursiv fett (bold italic). The font family was released in 1952–1953. It was sold in German, English, Spanish, and French markets as Steile Futura, Bauer Topic, Vox, and Zénith respectively.  The font family has rounder letters than Futura Display. For the first time, italic type features are incorporated in the italic fonts. The fonts incorporate handwriting features, especially in italic version.
In typography, a sans-serif, sans serif or san serif typeface is one that does not have the small projecting features called "serifs" at the end of strokes.  The term comes from the French word sans, meaning "without".  In print, sans-serif fonts are more typically used for headlines than for body text.  The conventional wisdom holds that serifs help guide the eye along the lines in large blocks of text.  Sans serifs, however, have acquired considerable acceptance for body text in Europe.
Geometric sans-serif typefaces are based on geometric shapes. Note the optically circular letter "O" and the simple construction of the lowercase letter "a". Geometric sans-serif fonts have a very modern look and feel. Lineal typefaces are constructed on simple geometric shapes, circles or rectangles.   Geometric fonts usually have a single-story “g” or “a”.  Of the sans-serif categories, the geometric typefaces are commonly the least useful for body text.
Futura has an appearance of efficiency and forwardness. The typeface is derived from simple geometric forms (near-perfect circles, triangles and squares) and is based on strokes of near-even weight, which are low in contrast. This is most visible in the almost perfectly round stroke of the o, which is nonetheless slightly ovoid. In designing Futura, Renner avoided the decorative, eliminating non-essential elements. The lowercase has tall ascenders, which rise above the cap line. The uppercase characters present proportions similar to those of classical Roman capitals.
Germany's defeat in World War 1, the fall of the German Monarchy and the abolition of censorship under the new, liberal Weimar Republic allowed an upsurge of radical experimentation in all the arts, previously suppressed by the old regime. Many Germans of left-wing views were influenced by the cultural experimentation that followed the Russian Revolution, such as constructivism.
Social, technological, and economic shifts are paralleled by changes in the forms of visual expression. Two forces drive creation of a new form of public script: developments in the technology used to create the script and governing attitudes at the time of its creation. Because writing, in the sense of using a script for the dissemination of information, is a social act, a third force—the moderating influence of cultural habit—strongly affects writing. Habit restrains any script created to serve the immediate needs of a group from extremes of shape alteration or arrangement and thereby prevents the isolation of the group within its cultural milieu. The presence of extreme letter shapes and new forms of the arrangement of writing in post-World War I Europe clearly indicates an attempt to respond to and control immense pressures in a society torn apart by a cataclysm of the first magnitude and sheds light on the cultural, technological, commercial, social, and political aspects of the period between the two world wars.
Although Renner was not associated with the Bauhaus, he shared many of its idioms and believed that a modern typeface should express modern models, rather than be a revival of a previous design. Renner's initial design included several geometrically constructed alternative characters and ranging (old-style) figures, which can be found in the typeface Architype Renner.
Paul Renner (August 9, 1878 – April 25, 1956) was a typeface designer, most notably of Futura.  He was born in Wernigerode, Germany and died in Hödingen.He was born in Prussia and had a strict Protestant upbringing, being educated in 19th century gymnasium. He was brought up to have a very German sense of leadership, of duty and responsibility. He was suspicious of abstract art and disliked many forms of modern culture, such as jazz, cinema, and dancing. But equally, he admired the functionalist strain in modernism. Thus, Renner can be seen as a bridge between the traditional (19th century) and the modern (20th century). He attempted to fuse the Gothic and the roman typefaces.
Renner was a prominent member of the Deutscher Werkbund (German Work Federation). Two of his major texts are Typografie als Kunst (Typography as Art) and Die Kunst der Typographie (The Art of Typography). He created a new set of guidelines for good book design and invented the popular Futura, a geometric sans-serif font used by many typographers throughout the 20th century and today. The typeface Architype Renner is based upon Renner's early experimental exploration of geometric letterforms for the Futura typeface, most of which were deleted from the face's character set before it was issued. Tasse, a 1994 typeface is a revival of Renner's 1953 typeface Steile Futura.
Renner was a friend of the eminent German typographer Jan Tschichold and a key participant in the heated ideological and artistic debates of that time.
Renner’s three books on typography—Typografie als Kunst (1922), Mechanisierte Grafik; Schrift, Typo, Foto, Film, Farbe (1930), and Die Kunst der Typographie (1939) provide an opportunity to establish Renner’s conception of Futura over time. The letterforms and page design of the books themselves provide specific formal evidence of changes reflected in the text. Typografie als Kunst is set in Unger fraktur and remarks in the book make it clear that Renner admired both the type and Unger’s program. Mechanisierte Grafik, set in a version of Futura medium that retains a Gothic inspired “post and ball” lower-case ‘r,’ shows that Renner believed that the modernization of German typography was under way but that an international style that incorporated German typographic traditions might not be possible. Die Kunst der Typographie was set in book weight Futura, but returns to the page proportions of the first book. The elegance of the lighter, taller pages contain a text of clearly written guidelines for typographic practice, not reform. This visual conception of the German book moves from a 1922 visual norm not essentially different from German books published in the early nineteenth century to one reflecting the imperatives of 1930 German printing technology, and, finally, in 1938, to a visual form which demonstrates how the sheet anchor of cultural continuity can mitigate the forces of technological and social change.
Even before 1932, Renner made his opposition to the Nazis very clear, notably in his book “Kultur-bolschewismus?” (Cultural Bolshevism?). He was unable to find a German publisher, so his Swiss friend Eugen Rentsch published it.
After the Nazis seized power in March 1933, Paul was arrested and dismissed from his post in Munich in 1933, and subsequently went into a period of internal exile. Soon after the book's publication, it was withdrawn from the German book market, until Stroemfeld Verlag issued a photomechanical reprint, Frankfurt am Main/Basel, in 2003. The new edition included comments by Roland Reuss and Peter Staengle (a main source for these notes) 

Thursday, October 13, 2011


- wedge shaped serifs
- more upright stress
- horizontal crossbar
- Bembo
- Berkeley Old Style
- Calisto
- Garamond
- Goudy Old Style

- thick/thin contrast increases
- serifs become thinner
- base serifs are barely or not rounded at the bottom
- Bakersville
- Concord
- Times New Roman
- Century
- Georgia

- sharp contrasts
- serifs are as thin as the thin parts of the letters
- Symmetry and sharp transitions to the straight serifs
- Didot
- Bodoni
- Walbaum
- Linotype Centennial
- Onyx

- little if any contrast between thick and thin
- usually have no bracket
- bold rectangular appearance, with sometimes fixed widths
- Clarendon
- Rockwell
- Courier
- Apex
- Cholla Slab


- Overall a more organic structure
- Low contrast between horizontals and verticals
- Short and thick bracketed serifs
- Verdana
- Allerta
- Calibri
- Gill Sans
- Tahoma

- some degree of contrast between thick and thin strokes
- terminals of curves are usually horizontal
typeface frequently has a spurred "G" and an "R" with a curled leg
- Monotype 215
- Universe
- Franklin Gothic
- Akzidenz Grotesk
- Helvetica

- Constructed from simple geometric shapes
- Same curves and lines are repeated throughout letters
- Minimal differentiation between letters
- Futura
- Eurostile
- Avante Garde
- Erbar
- Neuceite Grotesque

Wednesday, October 12, 2011

A B O U T   F U T U R A  
Futura is a geometric sans-serif typeface designed in 1927 by Paul Renner. It is based on geometric shapes that became representative visual elements of the Bauhaus design style of 1919–1933.  


Paul Renner (August 9, 1878 – April 25, 1956) was a typeface designer, most notably of Futura. He was born in WernigerodeGermany and died in Hödingen. He was brought up to have a very German sense of leadership, of duty and responsibility. He was suspicious of abstract art and disliked many forms of modern culture, such as jazz, cinema, and dancing. But equally, he admired the functionalist strain in modernism. Thus, Renner can be seen as a bridge between the traditional (19th century) and the modern (20th century). He attempted to fuse the Gothic and the roman typefaces. 

Thursday, September 8, 2011

Adrian Frutiger

Adrian Frutiger

As a Swiss designer born in 1928, Adrian Frutiger has been a major contributor to the typeface community through out the 20th century and remains a prominent figure to this day. Doing much of his work in France, he has designed dozens of typefaces, along with variations, that have become staples in typography. His fonts have influenced the design world by providing designers with legible, uniform, and unique typefaces and by providing an example of impeccably designed typefaces for typeface designers. Some of his most famous typefaces are Univers, Frutiger, Srifa, and Avenir. Univers and Frutiger. Univers and Frutiger, along with many other Frutiger typefaces, are known for clean lines and legibility. These have been in use for signage throughout the 20th century and are still used today. Besides designing classic typefaces, Frutiger also introduced the idea of a numbering system to describe the width and weight of a typeface. Along with the standard typeface of Univers, Frutiger created multiple variations where Univers would be more or less condensed and thicker or thinner. Using a numbering system, rather than names, was unheard of at the time. Today, Frutiger continues to contribute to the typeface world and refining his own typefaces that have set the standard for current and future typeface designers.

Typography Bio's

Firmin Didot was born in Paris in 1764, Didot is an established printer, engraver, and typographer. His family has a strong history in the publishing, designing, and typeface industry. In attempt to break away from the calligraphic typefaces and achieve something more legible, Didot created a typeface named after himself called Didot. Didot was much cleaner and high contrasting stroke widths. The Didot typeface was the beginning of a modern style and became a standard typeface in France. Other variations have been made, but the most famous interpretation was made for Harper's Bazaar.

Max Miedinge is a typeface designer whom created one of the most widely-used typefaces known as Helvetica. Helvetica, which is Latin for Miedinger's home of Switzerland, was created in 1957  and instantly had success. Miedinger started as a typesetter  and eventually became a typographer before becoming a freelance designer.

Herb Lubalin was an American graphic designer and typeface designer that graduated from the prestigious Cooper Union. His work with logos, layout, and type throughout the 60's and 70's became extremely influential and popular. Lubalin gained reputation for his work and signature bold headlines in magazines like Eros, Fact, and Avant Garde. The Avant Garde Magazine is obviously where the font Avant Garde was first used by Lubalin. This became his trademark and became widely used despite his disappointment with it's poor use by other designers.

Eric Gill was born in the United Kingdom in 1882, Gill is known for creating popular typefaces such as Aries, Gill Sans, Joanna, and Perpetua. He was associated with the Arts and Crafts movement and most well popular for Gill Sans. This typeface is known for it's signature letters Q, R, a, g, and t. The BBC and Penguin Books use Gill Sans, as well as many other companies and designers.

Paul Renner was born in Germany and lived from 1878-1956. Renner is well known for creating on of the most influential geometric typefaces known as Futura. Even though Renner was not directly involved in the Bauhaus movement, the modern design element in Futura made it a good representative of the movement. Futura remains an extremely popular and influential typeface that can be found in several variations.

Living Typographers
Tobias Frere-Jones is still currently a prolific type designer from New York City that works with his partner Jonathan Hoefler at their type foundry called Hoefler & Frere-Jones. After graduating from RISD and joining the Font Bureau, Inc., Frere-Jones  was a critic for the Yale School of Art before starting Hoefler & Frere Jones. Together they have created over 700 typefaces including Gotham, Knockout, Archer, and Surveyor.

Herman Zapf – Zapf is a working typeface designer from Germany. All of his typefaces are influenced by calligraphy and the hand written. He has created several successful typefaces including Palatino and Zapf.

After becoming interested in typography in high school, Jesse Ragan attended RISD and realized he would be interested in typography as a career. He has been a working typographer for both the Hoefler & Frere-Jones foundry and Joshua Darden Studio. Some of his more popular typefaces include Archer and Gotham (both made with Tabias Fere-Jones and Jonathan Hoefler.

Matthew Carter was born in London in 1937, Carter is currently a type designer in the United States. Carter worked as a freelancer as well as typographic advisor. In 1981 he created Bitstream Inc. with his colleague Mike Parer that focused on digital type. SOme of his more well known typefaces include Georgia and Verdana.

Gunter Gerhard Lange was born in Germany, Gerhard is one of the most influential script typographers. He works for the Typefoundry Berthold and has created classic script fonts such as Berthold Script, Berthold Imago, and Berhold Book

Monday, August 29, 2011

Typography Questions 2

1) Weight: The density or the lightness of the individual letterforms
2) Width: How wide a letterform becomes for extending or compressing
3) Style: Variations in thickness of stroke in letterforms tat emphasize the appearance of certain characters
4) Font: Font refers to a specific size and style of a given typeface
5) Typeface: Typeface describes a complete alphabet including letters, numerals, punctuation marks, accents, special reference marks, etc.
6) X-Height:The height of the lowercase
7) Cap Height: The height of capital letterforms
8) Leading: The spacing between the lines of letters
9) Letterspacing (Tracking): The practice of inserting tiny spaces between words set in capitals or in small capitals to make more agreeable to the eye
10) How is type measured?: Traditionally, type is measured in points
11) Point: The unit used for the measurement of letterforms
12) Pica: A printer's unit of type size that is equal to 12 points, about 1/6 of an inch
13) How many points in an inch?: A point is equivalent to 1/72 of an inch. 1 inch= 72 points
14) If a letter is set in 36 points, how many inches tall is it?: .5 inch
15) How many picas in an inch: six
16) How many points in a pica?: 12 points in a pica

Wednesday, August 24, 2011

Typography Questions

1) Grid: a two-dimensional structure made up of a series of intersecting vertical and horizontal axes used to structure content.
2) We as designers use grids to allow us to organize pages and bring coherency to a work.  The grid serves as a starting point in which a simple rational design can be achieved.
3) Modular Grid: A grid that has consistent horizontal divisions from top to bottom in addition to vertical divisions from left to right. These modules govern the placement and cropping of pictures as well as text.
4) Margins: The edge or border of something 
Columns: The vertical blocks of content on a page
Gutter: The blank space between facing pages, or also the space between columns of printed text.
Flowline: The horizontal line that appears on a layout within the text, so your eye flows through the page.
5) Hierarchy: The use of size, weight, placement, and spacing to express the parts of page or document.
6) Typographic Color: The overal density of the ink on the page, determined mainly by the typeface, but also by the word spacing. 
7) Ways to achieve a clear hierarchy are to keep in mind all of the elements that one is putting on a page. The size, weight, and placement of each word, letter, or column needs to be evaluated in order to maintain a clear coherent hierarchy. 
8) White Space: The space between elements in a composition, or specifically the space between major elements.
9) Contrast: It is the grouping of two typographic elements, then using different methods of traditional design to create contrast. 

Tuesday, August 23, 2011

My sweet animal for VISC 204

I chose the Ring-Tailed Lemur from Madagascar. I mostly chose this little guy because of the animated movie, me childish but that movie is bomb.


Finding text in the environment around us.

Tuesday, May 10, 2011

My chair...

These photos represent the 2nd day of construction of my chair.  As of today the remaining part of the back has been completely gridded and the back of the chair is no longer curved over...