1) Grid: a two-dimensional structure made up of a series of intersecting vertical and horizontal axes used to structure content.
2) We as designers use grids to allow us to organize pages and bring coherency to a work. The grid serves as a starting point in which a simple rational design can be achieved.
3) Modular Grid: A grid that has consistent horizontal divisions from top to bottom in addition to vertical divisions from left to right. These modules govern the placement and cropping of pictures as well as text.
4) Margins: The edge or border of something
Columns: The vertical blocks of content on a page
Gutter: The blank space between facing pages, or also the space between columns of printed text.
Flowline: The horizontal line that appears on a layout within the text, so your eye flows through the page.
5) Hierarchy: The use of size, weight, placement, and spacing to express the parts of page or document.
6) Typographic Color: The overal density of the ink on the page, determined mainly by the typeface, but also by the word spacing.
7) Ways to achieve a clear hierarchy are to keep in mind all of the elements that one is putting on a page. The size, weight, and placement of each word, letter, or column needs to be evaluated in order to maintain a clear coherent hierarchy.
8) White Space: The space between elements in a composition, or specifically the space between major elements.
9) Contrast: It is the grouping of two typographic elements, then using different methods of traditional design to create contrast.